The thematic EUROCORES programme “Understanding and Misunderstanding: Cognition, Communication and Culture (EuroUnderstanding)” addresses a set of inter-related questions of major current theoretical and practical importance, such as: How do communicative processes give rise to shared understandings, and how do these processes vary between cultures? How do intercultural misunderstandings arise, and what are their consequences? How do cultural and historical processes, and cultural-cognitive models, impinge on individual cognition, cognitive development and the development of personal identity? How can intercultural communication be made more effective in diverse cultural contexts? Within EuroUnderstanding, Humanities-based researchers collaborate with each other, and with researchers from life and social science disciplines, towards finding answers to these questions.