ESF hosts five Expert Boards and Committees (EBCs) that provide in-depth and focused scientific expertise in selected disciplines. The EBCs address specific scientific needs and provide high-level targeted expert advice in areas of research, policy, infrastructure, environment and society in Europe. The EBCs currently operate under the strategic guidance of either ESF Member Organisations or European agencies and research entities. They are composed of high-level researchers nominated by their stakeholders and deal with strategic science questions in their domains and are responsible for guiding policies in their areas of research. Growing interdisciplinarity is reflected in mutual observership and in an increasing number of activities, involving cooperation between committees. Scientific partners from Europe and beyond take part as observers.